Pregnancy is a physiological process in which a woman’s uterus develops a new human body as a result of fertilization.
Pregnancy at women lasts on the average 280 days (40 weeks that corresponds to 9 calendar months or 10 lunar months). It is accepted to divide pregnancy also on 3 trimesters on 3 calendar months in each.
Signs of pregnancy at an early stage
Early diagnosis of pregnancy is based on questionable and probable signs.
Doubtful signs of pregnancy – various subjective feelings, as well as objectively determined changes in the body, outside the internal genitalia: taste whims, changes in olfactory sensations, mild fatigue, drowsiness, pigmentation of the skin on the face, on the white line of the abdomen, nipples and periarticular circles.
Probable signs of pregnancy are objective signs from the genitals, mammary glands and when setting biological reactions to pregnancy. These include: the cessation of menstruation in women of childbearing age, an increase in mammary glands and the appearance of molosiva when squeezed out of the nipples, cyanosis of the mucous membrane of the vagina and cervix, changes in shape and consistency of the uterus, increasing its size.
It is possible to verify the presence of pregnancy at home with the help of express-test for the content of the hormone chorionic gonadotropin in the urine of a woman (the test is carried out from the first day of delay of the next menstruation).
Ultrasound examination (ultrasound) allows to confirm the fact of pregnancy.
Changes in the body of a pregnant woman
In the body of a woman during pregnancy there are numerous and complex changes. These physiological changes create conditions for the intrauterine development of the fetus, prepare the body for the birth act and breastfeeding of the newborn. Menstruation stops, mammary glands increase in volume, nipples become darker.
Many pregnant women in the first trimester have nausea, sometimes vomiting – these symptoms are called early toxicosis of pregnant women. Often there are weakness, drowsiness, heartburn, salivation, taste changes, and frequent urination. These disorders are typical for a healthy and normal pregnancy.
Especially large changes occur in the genitalia of a woman. The uterus increases with every week of pregnancy, the blood supply to internal and external genitals increases. Fabrics swell, acquire elasticity, which contributes to their better stretching during childbirth. In the mammary glands increases the number and volume of glandular slices, increases their blood supply, they become tense, molozovo is excreted from the nipples. The amount of gonadotropic hormones, as well as estrogens and progesterone, produced first by the yellow body (temporary gland formed in place of the follicle from which the mature egg came out) and then by the placenta, sharply increases. The hormones secreted by the yellow body (progesterone and, to a lesser extent, estrogens) help to create the conditions for proper development of pregnancy. The yellow body undergoes a reverse development after the fourth month due to the formation of the placenta hormonal function.
For pregnancy it is necessary to register in the antenatal clinic (3 – 4 weeks after the delay of menstruation), where a doctor examines and examines the external and internal genitalia, and if necessary, prescribe additional examinations.